All You Need to Know about BGAs in PCB Assembly2022-09-01
BGA (Ball Grid Array) is a surface mount package for integrated circuits for mounting devices. Each pin has a solder ball. All connections are distributed in a uniform surface grid or matrix on the component. Common grids available today are 1.27 mm – 1.00 mm – 0.80 mm – 0.50 mm
The standard for packaging integrated circuits on boards up to now was the PGA, a pin-grid array, but this has now been replaced by the BGA. In short, PGAs use a square arrangement of pins to mount components, whereas BGAs use metal balls made of solder attached to the bottom of the cell instead of pins.
What are the advantages of BGAs?
The BGA package is the most demanding packaging process for PCB manufacturing in terms of soldering and it has the following advantages.
Good thermal dissipation
The temperature of the chip is much closer to the ambient temperature when the BGA is in operation. In fact, when the BGA unit provides a thermal path to carry heat away, the heat generated will dissipate into the board
More storage spaces
The BGA package is only one third the size compared to other types of packages, and the cover area is only about 1.2 times the area of the chip. The amount of memory and the speed of operation of a memory product in a BGA package can be increased by more than 2.1 times compared to other types of packages.
Good operational stability
As the pins of the BGA package are directly extended from the center of the chip like all around, it effectively shortens the transmission path of various signals, greatly reducing the attenuation of signals, improving the response speed and anti-interference ability, and increasing the stability of the product.
BGA pins are numerous and short, with large pin spacing and good pin coplanarity.
The vulnerability of the pins is always a problem when using PGAs, and extra care is needed when using them.
BGA is not perfect, it also suffers from the following problems
Difficulties in post-solder inspection
PCB manufacturers must use x-ray fluoroscopy or x-ray layered inspection to ensure the reliability of the board’s soldered connections, with high equipment costs.
The repairs of BGA components requires protecting the solder beads and cleaning up the solder paste. If individual solder joints are damaged, the entire component must be removed and only replaced with a new BGA.
BGA components are sensitive to changes in temperature and humidity, and the ideal storage temperature is 20 to 25°C and humidity less than 10%. The ideal storage temperature is 20 to 25°C and humidity less than 10%.
BGA packaged components are sensitive components and if they need to be imported BGA components require longer logistic times and higher costs.
In fact, in many applications, BGA may not be the best choice. In this case, there are many other BGA types that can be used in different situations.
– Molded Array Process Ball Grid Arrays or MAPBGA, which are ideal for low cost to low to medium performance devices.
– Thermally Enhanced Plastic Ball Grid Array or TEPBGA, this package offers high levels of heat dissipation.
– With Ball Grid Array or TBGA, this is ideal for mid to high end solutions.
– Package on Package or PoP, this allows the memory package to be stacked on top of the base device and is therefore very useful for applications where space is limited.
What makes BGAs important in PCB assembly?
The importance of a correct PCB layout cannot be overstated. Although it connects various electronic components on a substrate, it is this method of attaching components to the surface of the board that largely affects the stability and efficiency of the board.
The main reason for the popularity of the BGA package is due to its obvious advantages, with unique benefits in terms of package density, electrical performance and cost allowing it to replace traditional packaging methods. Over time, more and more improvements will be made to the BGA package and the price/performance ratio will be further improved. With flexibility and excellent performance, the BGA package has a promising future.
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