In the PCBA processing, how does the program “burn” into the IC chip?

In PCBA processing, in order to achieve the expected specific functions of the board, in addition to hardware, software support is required. If you have software, you need to add the “burn” program in the PCBA processing process – “handle” the program into the IC.

The process of “handling” the program into the internal storage space of the chip is called burning.

Burning methods are generally divided into offline burning and online burning.

1. Offline burning:
By connecting the adapter to the chip in different packages, the chip can be used with the adapter to achieve program burning. The nature of the adapter is similar to a precision fixture, and different packages of chips need to be mated with different adapters. If there is an error in the production test and the production backtracking is re-corrected, the chip needs to be detached from the adapter and re-recorded according to the prescribed process, which requires a large amount of manpower and material resources and a high cost. There are some unexpected situations when the PCBA is processed and produced. If the temperature of the circuit board is not high enough, the chip will be deformed when the chip is removed, which increases the risk of scrapping.

2. Online burning:
Online programming uses the standard communication bus of the chip, such as USB, SWD, JTAG, UART, etc. The interface is generally fixed, and there are few pins to be connected during programming. Since the interface communication rate is not high, the general cable can be used for burning without high consumption. Online burning is performed by wire connection. If an error occurs during the production test, the PCBA can be traced back and the burned can be performed again without disassembling the chip. Not only saves production costs, but also increases the efficiency of burning.